A less common type of cancer that can directly affect the chest - but is not a lung cancer - is called Mesothelioma, which is a cancer of the lining of the lung. This lining forms two membrane - one lies over the surface of the lung and the other lies on the inside of the chest wall. This type of cancer is usually associated with previous exposure to asbestos.
It usually presents with progressive breathlessness or a chest ache. A chest X-ray often suggests the diagnosis and then referral to the respiratory medicine service is needed for further assessment.